Jewelry design regained speed in the late 1930’s after the United States began its recovery from the collapse of the stock market in 1929 and the subsequent Great Depression. Hollywood and all its glamour became the influence of Retro jewelry: it is easily identifiable by the use of bright, highly polished yellow, rose, and green gold. The jewelry is big, bold, and three dimensional. Large emerald cut semi-precious gemstones were the star of this era, namely amethyst, aquamarine, and citrine. These large stones were often accented by small diamonds and calibre cut rubies and sapphires. Due to the beginning of World War II in 1941, platinum became scarce again and gold was the metal of choice. Common design themes from this era include big flowing ribbons and bows, as well as the use of flowers and even animals. Wide gold bracelets, oversized dress clips and earrings that were worn high up on the ear were all popular styles. Notable designers of this time were Verdura, Oscar Heyman, Buccellati, and William Russer, among many others.